Tag Archives: hairspray

Chipping techniques- washable paints, hairspray and Windex chipping

I was curious how some chipping methods compare, so I did some experiments. Since the old hairspray I used ran out, and I could not get a similar product, I switched to the AK chipping fluid. (Not all hairsprays are the same when it comes to chipping; if you find something that works, stick to it.)

I also wanted to see how the Windex chipping technique works, and what the Mig Ammo washable white paint does. It’s not a comprehensive tutorial by any means, but I hope others find it useful.

Hairspray technique


There’s a nice summary of the hairspray technique on another blog, so I won’t be taking up much space with it. It essentially works by forming a water soluble layer between two paint layers, which makes a chipping effect once water is applied and slightly macerated with a stiff brush or toothpick. It can be applied to simulate paint chips or worn white wash; I used white in this case. With the AK Interactive product there’s a time factor: the earlier you do the chipping after the paint is dried, the larger the chips are; the longer you wait, the more difficult it becomes to remove the top layer. This can be used for your advantage, as it also allows you to use it in conjunction with the Windex chipping technique.

Windex chipping


This is something relatively new. I’ve read about it in the Single Model series (02) by Rinaldi Studio Press. This technique depends on the fact that ammonia dissolves Tamiya (and supposedly similar acrylic) paints. You essentially dissolve the top layer with a 1-3% ammonia solution. (Windex and similar cleaning products contain ammonia; you can even buy ammonia by itself, and it would work just as fine.) The higher the ammonia concentration, the easier you remove the top paint layer, so it’s worth being patient and using less concentrated solutions. I used to use Windex as a solvent and airbrush cleaner; it seems like it’s great for chips as well. The effect is much more subtle than the hairspray technique’s: it produces smaller chips, and the effect is more like rubbed-off paint.

Mig Ammo washable white


It’s essentially a white paint that can be spray painted and then washed off after drying. It does not form chips as it is; it’s more like a whitish translucent overcoat. The paint should not be diluted much (one or two drops of water, tops), as it would spray very dilute. (It took a while to figure out why it behaves like a wash when I sprayed it… The Lowe I did was the test piece, and I had to try three times before I realized I needed to keep the dilution low. It’s quite thick, so some dilution is necessary, but not much.) I’m not sure it stays washable after a prolonged period of time; it probably does.

Onto the test…

So I prepared my trusty Pnz IV mudguards with a green layer of paint, and sealed it with Dullcote. (So that it protects the paint from the ammonia.) The next layer was Tamiya’s flat white.

I divided up the segments, and got working. (I forgot to take a photo before I started to work on the AK Interactive chipping fluid. Imagine it white.)

AK Interactive Chipping fluid

I used a wet brush on the surface, and then gently a toothpick to nick the surface. The nicks were enlarged with a large, relatively stiff wet brush.

The resulting chips are giving a stark contrast between the white and the underlying green.


Mig Ammo Washable White

The paint is very thick and kind of shiny once on the surface (you can see this on the photo). After a little drying period, I used a wet brush with a downward motion to remove the paint. It got dissolved, and smeared over the surface. The residual paint formed an uneven layer over the green paint, making the surface look worn. No chips, but realistic worn effect.


The Windex Chipping method

I prepared a ~2% Ammonia solution using a kitchen cleaning product, and used a brush to wet the surface with it. I waited a minute or two and then gently rubbed the brush against the surface. For a long time nothing seemed to happen, but after a while I got a very nice, realistic chipping effect. It’s an important thing to point out: the effect is very gradual; for a while it really does look like nothing is happening. Some foam appears, but that’s it. Don’t push the brush down (now I’m rapping about modelling), as it might lift up the base layer as well.


You can see the same technique used to recreate rust on the electric mule I built not long ago. The square parts are about 0.5cm long. Unfortunately the photo is not the best (the most interesting part is out of focus), but the effect can still be judged: tiny, minuscule chips and general look of wear-and-tear. Pretty good, I’d say.


AK Interactive Chipping fluid and Windex combined

The fourth section was first treated with the AK Interactive chipping fluid, did the chips, then waited a couple of days. (It was probably close to a week, if I recall correctly.) The next step was to use the Windex method on the same section, forming smaller chips. The effects are subtle next to the large chips, but you can see how the paint rubbed off the edges and other areas sticking out. It also formed very tiny little chips between the larger ones, making the effect a bit more realistic. The Windex effects complements the larger chips of the previous method quite nicely. Due to dissolving the white color, it also deposited some on the green undercoat, making the contrast less pronounced in some areas. (Not all and not evenly.)



So there is it.

I think the washable paint looks good as a very worn winter whitewash on its own. If you use hairspray chipping for whitewash it would also be very useful to tone down the stark contrast between the underlying paint and the white on top.

The Windex method is great for subtle chips, but it also complements the larger hairspray chipping.

This, of course, is not limited to whitewashes; excellent chips can be done using a rust undercolor, or even a variation of the main color. (Green on green chips, camo pattern chips, etc.) Your imagination is the limit.

There are more than one ways to skin a cat, so these are not the definitive methods; there are other ones as well. AK Interactive just came out with a solution that makes any acrylic paint washable; the this opens up a large potential of uses from dust to worn paint. I have ordered it, so when I have some time I’ll see what it can do, and post the results.



(Here’s an imgur album for the photos- they are hopefully larger than the wordpress versions.)

Plus Models C4-32 (C-432) Electric Mule 1/35


 AM companies are great at finding the gaps in the modelling world; and this vehicle was definitely something that has not been covered by anyone yet (to my knowledge). The C4-32 mule (which was designated as C-432 in reality) is a hardy little veteran of the US Army, but it has avoided the limelight so far. Even though the vehicle flew under the radar so to speak, and there are no webpages dedicated to it (it did not even get a nickname like “Yellow Tiger” or “Electric Lightning”), it was widely used by the US Armed Forces, and this makes it to be a very eye-catching little detail in any diorama that depict hangars, warehouses in military or in civilian use. (In this respect I would consider this model a diorama accessory rather than a scale model.)

So here is the Mule in all its glory:

(Yeah, it looks kind of silly.)

What’s in the box?

 The kit comes in a small box, usual to plus model, with a photo of the assembled model on the front. The model is placed in a Ziploc bag; some parts were already detached from the pouring block, and the handle for the driver was broken. There is a small PE fret, a decal sheet, and instructions included.

The resin is good quality and easy to work with. The detail is excellent in general. There is not much flash to clean up, but some care will be needed when detaching parts from the block. The parts are numbered on the pouring blocks, which is very helpful during the building process.

There are a couple of PE parts included; mostly for the drivetrain of the cart, and the logo for the company that produced it. Since I did not find much in the way of reference, so I have to assume the dimensions are correct.

The instructions are overall not bad, but there are a couple of minor issues. On step two the part number of the fork that holds the wheel is not written (12), as on step three the number for the logo for the front of the vehicle (part 3 on the PE fret).

The building

 The building took about two hours and it really did not pose much of a challenge. Some parts of the assembly are a bit fiddly, but not impossibly hard. The little pins holding the front wheels and the main suspension comes to mind, mostly. The rest of the build is straightforward. You can build two versions of the vehicle, both in US Army service; one version has extra protective bumpers in the front and around the back.


I’ve left off the seat and other parts which were black before starting on the yellow paint. I’ve painted the whole model rust brown as a base which was sealed with Dullcote, and used the hairspray technique to create a battered, well used look. (I think I might have gone overboard with the scratches…) The next layer was the hairspray, and then came a mixture of Tamiya’s yellow and orange paint (about 3:1 ratio). Once the paint was dry to the touch I used a toothpick to “nick” the paint for the scratches, and then a wet brush to “expand” these areas. On some places on the model I had to retouch with the brown paint as the paint came off completely. Once I was happy with the results, I sealed the model with Dullcote again, and attached the seat, the pedals and other small bits. Since I did not expect the vehicle to operate in a dusty, muddy environment, I did not add dirt. The headlights were first painted silver, then I used Citadel’s red technical paint on the back headlight – these paints allow for an easy way to simulate lenses and gems. (They are not as good as the painted gemstones in miniatures, but they’re perfect for headlights.) The orange caution light that sits on a pole received similar treatment, only the base color was yellow. The result is pretty nice, I have to say: the paint does give a sense of depth.

So that’s pretty much it. The build was enjoyable -and short-, and the model is smaller than most 1/72nd scale tanks I’ve built.

Revell/Armory T-72B 1/72


The T-72B (Object 184) was a much improved version of the T-72A model. It was accepted into service in 1985, and mass produced from 1988. The tank has received an improved 1A40-1 fire control system, improved composite armor (Super Dolly Parton) on the turret, and extra armor on the front hull. The new main gun (2A46M) was capable of firing 9M119 antitank missiles. The gun was also supplied with a new, improved sight (1K13-49), and a better gun stabilization system. The tank was powered by a new 840hp V-83-1 engine. The smoke dischargers were placed onto the left side of the turret to make room for the reactive armor (ERA) bricks.

These changes have significantly improved the tank: in many ways it is comparable to the T-80U model (although with poorer engine power). It is the last modification of the T-72 line; the next model has received the designation of T-90 (for obvious marketing reasons after the First Gulf War). Earlier models were later brought up to the T-72B levels, and this makes this model one of the most widely used tanks in the world.



Armory has released the earlier T-72B model without the ERA bricks (there are countless variants of the ERA equipped tank, if you want them). It uses the excellent Revell T-72 kit as a base. All of the conversion steps are straightforward, and do not include extensive surgery: the new parts simply replace the plastic ones.

The model comes in a small paper box. It has the photo of a finished T-72B on the cover (with an added commander’s shield, which needs to be ordered separately, as I discovered). The parts are placed in small ziplock bags, and there was no damage during transport. (As opposed to the Revell kit, where the AA machine gun was broken after the mail delivered it…)

The instructions are simple, but not very clear; however there are plenty of reference photos online to help with the assembly.




The parts are cast in dark, somewhat brittle resin. The detail is very fine; Armory has captured the changed shape and texture of the turret, and the composite armor sections very well. The hatches provided have interior detail, but since the turret does not have any (it’s solid resin), I chose to close them.

Some of the flash is actually quite thick, but nothing that you can’t solve with a fine saw. (Please remember that fine resin dust is toxic; use wet cutting and wet sanding techniques.) You do have to be careful though, not to damage the parts themselves while sawing.




The construction is easy as was mentioned previously: after cleanup you simply have to switch the resin parts for the plastic ones. The fit is excellent, and I have not run into any difficulties during construction. As mentioned the commander’s shield is depicted on the boxart photo with the small print that it has to be ordered separately; I think this should have been included with the kit (or the print made larger…) As it was I felt a bit disappointed when I realized that I’d have to pay (and wait) some more to have the complete package.




As I usually do I used black primer to create a good surface for the paint. I applied some hair-spray to most of the model, as I decided to try doing the chipping this way, instead of painting them on using a fine brush and a sponge.

I’ve used the modern, Russian two color scheme for this build. I used Tamiya Tan for the yellow (as it’ll be darkened, and modulated by subsequent filters), and Tamiya Dark Green mixed with Tan to get the green color. Due to the scale effect, most colors should be lightened anyway, but I noticed it makes less of a contrast between two colors if I mix the lighter into the darker color. The base color was yellow, and added the green using my airbrush free-handed.


The chipping is very discreet; due to the long time it took to get the final paint layers on (about a week, as life and work unfortunately interrupts the modelling sessions), the hairspray did not dissolve very easily. In this case it’s fortunate, since in 1/72 only the largest paint chips would be visible, and I try not to overdo the weathering effects. It’s something worth keeping in mind however. If you want large chips, you have to work fast, and do the chipping phase soon after you applied the chipping fluid/hairspray. The process itself is simple: you dampen the surface with water, wait a bit, and use a toothpick/brush to remove some of the paint.

I wanted to depict a serious flaking of paint on the rubber side-skirts, as they are normally very much battered and abused, so the black rubber readily shows through, but unfortunately, in this case the long waiting time worked against me. It was pretty difficult to remove the paint using water; in fact for the larger scratches I used black paint and a fine brush.

Since we’re talking about the side-skirts: they are amazingly detailed. What irked me about Trumpeter’s 1K17 is that the side-skirts looked like they were made out of armored plates. Many older models have this fault, and for the longest time I did think they were made out of metal. Only in the last couple of years when I had a chance to look at a T-72 in person, watched some videos and reference photos realized that they are, in fact, rubber.


In the next step I added umber and yellowish colored filters; once they were dry, I added a semi-gloss varnish layer, and did some pin washes with the usual black/burned umber mixture.





I tried AK Interactive’s fuel stains product (without diluting). It’s not bad, but it definitely needs thinner, otherwise it looks way too thick.


I’ve used different light earth colored pigments for depicting dust and dried mud on the lower part of the hull. The mud was applied wet (pigments mixed with white spirit), which was rubbed off using a stiff brush (with downwards motions, focusing on the top sections mostly, leaving the pigments undisturbed on the bottom). The “dust” was applied dry, and I did not use anything to fix them in place. (The model will live in a closed box, well protected from probing fingers and dust.) Black pigment was rubbed on the side-skirt close to the exhaust port.

As a finishing touch the edges were treated with the usual graphite pencil to give them some metallic shine, and the tank was mounted on the base of a display box.


DML Tiger I- Hairspray technique

I always liked the look of this camo pattern, so I decided to finally build one of these tanks. The problem was I only had the Ausf E version in 1/72, and did not wish to buy yet another Tiger model. ( have two more in 1/35 waiting for me in storage at home.)

It was kind of fortunate that I did have this particular kit, though, because it has a lot of parts to build an early version (the largest exceptions were the road wheels, which were all-steel). I got the toolbox leftover from a panzer IV conversion, swapped the road wheels from another DML Tiger (as I said I did have more of these kits than it’s healthy), and made some efforts to backdate the kit to an earlier version. Purists will find it lacking, but I am not a purist, so we’re in luck. I just wanted to do the camo.


Once the build was done, I painted it panzer gray. Since I would be heavily weathered, and most of the gray would be covered with the remnants of the whitewash, I went for a deliberately streaked finish (less work now, less work later). YES, I KNOW THE SHOVEL SHOULD NOT BE THERE. I like the way it looks, ok?

The next (less fortuitous) occasion was the leaving of my (then) girlfriend. She was moving back to her country after finishing her degree, so she was leaving most of her stuff behind. Hairspray included. (If you want to try this technique, don’t let your girlfriend leave. Easier just to buy the damned can.)

I was a bit apprehensive how it would work out, but I covered the whole thing with hairspray. It became somewhat sticky, and very shiny. After waiting a week or so, the stickiness disappeared, but the shine was still luxurious, just as the advertisement said it would be.

Next step was the whitewash. I used Vajello’s white primer, and applied with a brush. This is why I was worried, because most of the time the layer after the hairspray is airbrushed -I was worried the water in the paint would already dissolve the hairspray below. I chose the primer because it was really thick with a good coverage. I left the approximate areas clear of white.

On top of the white I used some brownish colors to lightly drybrush the larger areas: mud and dirt staining (and being washed off) the vehicle.

Next step: bring out the cotton swabs. I wet them (not too much), and started to rub them against the surface (very carefully). Sure enough, the paint started to flake of, like a charm.

At this stage the contrast by the  wear and tear looks a bit too stark: the gray is too clean. After drying I sprayed a matt varnish over the tank to seal the hairspray.

Next step of the weathering process: oil filters. First-  white. I put drops of the oil paints onto a piece of cardboard, and left them there for about 20 minutes to draw the linseed oil out. Using a toothpick I put dots of white all over the model, and then a flat, broad brush wetted with mineral spirit was used to remove most of the paint with downward motions. This deposited a very fine layer of white onto the surface.

After drying the same was repeated on the lower chassis using browns (burned umber, brown). A soft pencil was used along the edges to give it some metallic shine, some pigments (white, and different mud colored ones) on the running gear and the tracks, rust colored pigments on the exhaust pipes, and I called it a day. All in all, it looks pretty good for its scale.